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研究生(外文): Chin Kun Chang
论文名称(外文): Exploring the Influential Factors of Middle-and-Older Aged Employees’ Retention or Reemployment
指导教授(外文): CHENG-WEN LEE
口试委员(外文): JAN-YAN LIN、SHIH MING PI、Jonq-Lan Lin、Chun-Der Chen
外文关键词: Middle-and-older aged employees、Leadership style、Organizational commitment、Job Performance、Postretirement reemployment
中国台湾省预计在 2026 年迈向超高龄社会(65 岁以上人口达 20%)，在人口迅速高龄少子化趋势下，恐面临劳动力不足、产业外移、经济萎缩的困境。另一方面，上世纪参与中国台湾省经济奇蹟的战后婴儿潮世代自 2011 年起陆续退出职场，这些退休者中有许多具有丰富的专业技术及经验，加上退休时的健康良好，又长期在热衷社会的参与，退休再就业的意愿高，如能善加利用这些资深的专业人力，退休者不仅可以传承经验、增进健康、获取薪酬，增加消费，同时也有助于国家经济的发展，减轻银髮族带来人力资源短缺的海啸衝击。 由于医疗技术的进步，国民的平均预期寿命的增加，平均退休年龄也相对变小，这不仅造成人力资源的浪费，也影响了社会的经济负担。本研究对管理者的领导风格类型、组织承诺、组织绩效进行了探讨。管理者的领导管理风格、组织承诺和组织绩效对中老年职工的继续留任与退休后再就业产生的影响做出研究。 当今的工作环境因其全球性而更加複杂、精緻，需要强而有力的领导风格。由于领导者面临著不可预知的挑战，经济竞争力要求他们有时间和精力来处理人力短缺面临的问题。不同层次的领导管理风格，对员工的有效管理可以通过组织承诺的影响改变组织绩效达成效果。虽然员工表现为组织内外各种因素的影响、背景资料。绩效可以被认为是一个多维度的概念。 管理者的领导风格与下属工作的绩效有关。因此，最适合组织及其员工的领导风格仍然是最有效的手段之一。组织目标和员工绩效的程度，发达经济体进行了较多的研究，得出了不同的关注结论。因此，本研究检测了领导风格的影响，监督工作行为（承诺和绩效表现）之间的关係。本研究的结果将有利于组织的管理，进而瞭解领导风格的影响。 领导力是指领导者集合并引导个体实现任何目标。领导力是领导者与个人之间的沟通过程。因此，组织的有效性取决于有效的领导者，对于任何组织或团体来说，领导力都是一个非常重要的因素。组织的存在和生存及其进步需要概念和测量绩效，作为实现组织绩效的工具。组织绩效是衡量组织成就的领导成功实施和模拟水准，它反映了组织生命週期的动态；本研究探讨了领导风格对组织绩效的作用。当组织面临新的挑战时，有效的领导行为有助于提高组织绩效，结果表明，领导风格与组织绩效之间存在相关性。研究认为，组织的存在和生存以及组织的进一步需要概念和衡量绩效作为实现组织绩效的工具，组织绩效是一个可实现的指标，通过领导风格，可以成功地达成组织绩效。 由于平均退休年龄相对的年轻化，政府除积极研讨退休年龄延后外，也鼓励中高龄能退休后能继续再留任或是再就业。本研究探讨管理者的领导风格、组织承诺与组织绩效，是否对中高年龄员工留任或是再就业有所影响。基此，本研究问卷发放调查以中高龄族群(44岁以上)为基础，并增加「经济需求」、「管理者领导风格」构面、「组织承诺」构面，「组织绩效」构面探讨 44 岁以上中高龄者留任或退休后再就业的行为意向。本研究採问卷调查法及便利取样方式，总计发放 416 份问卷，回收 409 份问卷；其中有效问卷385份。本研究结果发现， 「退休留任或再就业态度」、「管理者领导风格」、「组织承诺」、「组织绩效」与中高龄者留任或退休后再就业的行为意向皆呈现显著正相关。依据多元迴归分析结果，影响中高龄者退休后再就业的行为意向最高者为管理者领导风格控制，其次为组织承诺；显示中高龄者留任或退休后再就业的行为意向，受管理者领导风格评估影响最大，较好的管理者领导风格对于中高龄者留任，或其退休后再就业的意愿较高；好的管理者领导风格与好的组织承诺与组织绩效呈正相关的关係。另外，「经济需求」 虽非影响中高龄者退休后再就业意向的最重要因素，但仍然对留任或是再就业的意向有显著的正向影响，显示个人经济需求亦会影响中高龄者留任或是退休后再就业的意向。
Taiwan is expected to become an ultra-high-age society (20% of the population over 65 years old) by 2026. With the rapidly aging population and the trend of fewer children, Taiwan may face the predicament of labor shortage, industry migration, and economic shrinkage. On the other hand, the post-war baby boomers who participated in Taiwan's economic miracle in the last century have been retired from the workplace since 2011. Many of these retirees have rich professional skills and experience, plus good health at the time of retirement and long-time participation in the enthusiastic society. If we can make good use of these experienced professionals, retirees can not only pass on their experience, improve their health, earn a salary, and increase their consumption, but also help Taiwan's economic development and reduce the impact of the tsunami of human resources shortage brought by the silver-haired generation. Due to the advancement of medical technology, the average life expectancy of people has increased and the average retirement age has become relatively small, which not only causes the waste of human resources but also affects the economic burden of the society. This study examines the type of leadership style, organizational commitment, and job Performance of managers. The impact of managerial leadership style, organizational commitment, and job Performance the Retention and post-retirement employment is examined. Today's work environment is more complex and sophisticated due to its global nature, requiring strong leadership styles. As leaders face unpredictable challenges, economic competitiveness requires that they have the time and energy to deal with workforce shortages. Effective management of employees at different levels of leadership style can change job Performance through the impact of organizational commitment to achieve results. And employee performance is affected by various factors and background information inside and outside the organization. Performance can be thought of as a multidimensional concept. A manager's leadership style is related to the performance of his subordinates. Therefore, the leadership style that best suits the organization and its employees are still one of the most effective tools. The extent to which organizational goals and employee performance have been studied in more developed economies has led to different conclusions of concern. Therefore, this study examines the influence of leadership style to monitor the relationship between work behavior (commitment and performance). The results of this study will be beneficial for the management of organizations to understand the impact of leadership style. Leadership is the ability of a leader to assemble and guide an individual to achieve any goal. Leadership is the process of communication between a leader and an individual. Therefore, the effectiveness of an organization depends on an effective leader, and leadership is a very important factor for any organization or group. The existence and survival of an organization and its progress require the concept and measurement of performance as a tool for achieving job Performance. Job Performance is a measure of organizational achievement in terms of the level of leadership success implemented and simulated, which reflects the dynamics of the organizational life cycle; this study examines the role of leadership style of job Performance. This study examines the role of leadership style of job Performance. The results indicate that there is a correlation between leadership style and job Performance, effective leadership behaviors help to improve job Performance when organizations are faced with new challenges. The study concluded that the existence and survival of organizations and their further need to conceptualize and measure performance as a tool for achieving job Performance is an achievable indicator of successful job Performance through leadership style. Due to the relatively young average retirement age, the government is actively studying the extension of the retirement age and encouraging the middle-aged and elderly to stay in the workforce or to re-enter the workforce after retirement. This study examines whether the leadership style, organizational commitment, and job Performance of managers have an impact on the Retention and reemployment of middle-aged and older employees. For this reason, the survey was based on the middle-aged group (44 years old or older), and the "economic needs", "managerial leadership style", "organizational commitment", and "job Performance" dimensions were added to investigate the behavioral intentions of middle-aged and older employees aged 44 years or older to stay in their jobs or re-enter the workforce after retirement. A total of 416 questionnaires were distributed and 409 questionnaires were collected, of which 385 were valid. The results of the study revealed that "attitude toward retirement or Reemployment", "managerial leadership style", "organizational commitment", and "job Performance" were all positively correlated with the behavioral intention of middle-aged and elderly people to stay in their jobs or re-employ after retirement. According to the results of the multivariate regression analysis, the behavioral intentions of the middle-aged to re-enter the workforce after retirement was most influenced by managerial leadership style, followed by organizational commitment; it showed that the behavioral intentions of middle-and-older aged employees to stay or re-enter the workforce after retirement was most influenced by managerial leadership style. Although "financial need" is not the most important factor affecting the intention of middle-and-older aged employees to rehire after retirement. It still has a significant positive effect on the intention to stay or rehire, indicating that personal financial need also affects the intention of middle-and-older aged employees to stay or rehire after retirement.
摘 要 I Abstract III Acknowledgments VI Table of Content VII List of Tables IX List of Figures X Chapter 1: Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 The Motivation of This Study 2 1.3 The Purpose of This Study 4 1.4 Research Process 6 Chapter 2: Literature Review 7 2.1 Introduction 7 2.2 Middle-Aged Employee 7 2.2.1 Overview of Population Growth 7 2. 2.2 Overview and Impact of Aging 8 2.3 Employment Profile of Middle and Senior Citizens 11 2.4 Types of Leadership Styles 12 2.4.1 Leadership 12 2.4.2 Leadership Trait Theory 15 2.4.3 The Behavioral Model of Leadership 15 2.5 Leadership Style 16 2.5.1 Charismatic Leadership 22 2. 5.2 Business Leadership 22 2. 5.3 Transformational Leadership Style 23 2.5.4 Transactional Leadership Style 27 2.6 Organizational Commitment 31 2.7 Job Performance 44 2.8 Leadership Style Styles and Organizational Commitment 50 2.9 Leadership Style Type and Job Performance 52 2.10 Organizational Commitment and Job Performance 56 2.11 Leadership Style, Organizational Commitment, and Performance 59 Chapter 3: Research Methodology 61 3.1 Research Framework 61 3.2. Operational Definition of Each Variable and Research Hypotheses 61 3.2.1 Managerial Leadership Style 62 3.2.2 Organizational Commitment 63 3.2.3 Personal Attributes 64 3.2.4 Demand for Retirement Employment 65 3.2.5 Meaning of Performance 66 3.3 Research Hypotheses 67 3.4 Research Instrument 68 3.5 SAS Data Analysis Method 70 Chapter 4: Analysis Result 73 4.1 Descriptive Statistics Analysis 73 4.2 Factor Analysis (FA) 75 4.2.1 Factor Analysis of Leadership Styles 76 4.2.2 Factor Analysis of Organizational Commitment 77 4.2.3 Factor Analysis of Job Performance 77 4.2.4 Factor Analysis of Reemployment 78 4.2.5 Factor Analysis of Retention 78 4.3 Correlation Analysis of Leadership Type and Organizational Commitment and Retention of Wishes (H1, H4) 79 4.4 Simple Correlation Analysis with "work performance" (H2, H3, H6, H7) 79 4.6 Multiple Regression Analysis Validation 80 Chapter 5: Conclusion 81 5.1 Discussion 81 5.2 Conclusions 82 5.3 Managerial Implication 83 5.4 Research Limitations 85 5.5 Recommendations 85 Appendix 1: Expert Validity Questionnaire 114 Appendix 2: Expert Validity Questionnaire 127 List of Publications 136 List of Tables Table 2.1 The trend of the centennial population in Taiwan 9 Table 2.2 The structure of working-age population 10 Table 2.3 Participation rate of the labor force in 2217-2020 12 Table 2.4 Labor power of 2017-2020 12 Table 3.1 Reliability analysis of this questionnaire 70 Table 3.2 Distribution of propensity to reemploy after retirement 70 Table 3.3 Allocation of the number of personal data 71 Table 4.1 Behavior analysis of the five-point scale to measure the depiction of the leadership type 72 Table 4.2 Behavior analysis of the five-point scale to measure the depiction of the organizational Commitment 73 Table 4.3 Behavior analysis of the five-point scale to measure the depiction of the job performance 74 Table 4.4 Behavior analysis of the five-point scale to measure the depiction of the. staying arbitrary 74 Table 4.5 Behavior analysis of the five-point scale to measure the depiction of the. retirement Reemployment needs 74 Table 4.6 Factor analysis of leadership styles 75 Table 4.7 Factor analysis of organizational commitment 76 Table 4.8 Factor analysis of job performance 76 Table 4.9 Factor analysis of reemployment 77 Table 4.10 Factor analysis of retention 78 Table 4.11 Simple correlation analysis of leadership type with organizational commitment and Retention wishes 78 Table 4.12 Simple correlation analysis between each study concept and job performance 79 Table 4.13 Simple correlation analysis table 79 Table 4.14 Regression analysis of each study concept and job performance 79 Table 4.15 Canonical correlation analysis of each study's constructs and job satisfaction 79 Table 5.1 Summary of the results of the eight hypotheses 82 List of Figures Figure 2.1 Aging timeline - medium projection 10 Figure 3.1 The conceptual framework of this study 60 Figure 3.2 The study hypothesis and its factors are related to the structure of diagram 61
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