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汉语疑问词「怎麽」之左缘结构分析

阅读量:02021-07-25作者:陈彦叡来源:国立清华大学
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研究生: 陈彦叡
研究生(外文): CHEN, YAN-RUEI
论文名称: 汉语疑问词「怎麽」之左缘结构分析
论文名称(外文): On Zenme 'How-come' in Mandarin Chinese: A Left Periphery Analysis
指导教授: 叶瑞娟叶瑞娟引用关係、杨中玉杨中玉引用关係
指导教授(外文): Yeh, Jui-chuan、Yang, Barry C.-Y.
口试委员: 黄汉君、黄瑞恆
口试委员(外文): Huang, Han-Chun、Huang, Rui-heng Ray
口试日期: 2018-06-29
学位类别: 硕士
校院名称: 国立清华大学
系所名称: 台湾语言研究与教学研究所
学门: 文学
学类: 语言学类
论文种类: 学术论文
论文出版年: 2018
毕业学年度: 106
语文别: 英文
论文页数: 130
中文关键词: 非典疑问词、怎麽、左缘结构、否定、否认
外文关键词: non-canonical wh-phrase、zenme、left periphery、negative、denial


摘要:
本论文以句法制图的方式分析汉语疑问词「怎麽」句法位置。本研究主要 聚焦位于 CP 层次中的疑问词「怎麽」。在先前的研究中,已关注到位于模态词 之前的疑问词有两种功能,一种功能可作为疑问句询问「起因」,另一种功能则 作为答覆表达「否认」(Tsai 1999, 2000, 2007, 2008)。
然而,本篇认为疑问词「怎麽」尚有两个新的「怎麽」功能,这两种「怎 麽」的语力(illocutionary force)皆高于「否认」怎麽。一种「怎麽」为「强否认」, 作为表达更高的语力,因此原先否认「怎麽」于本篇重新定义为「弱否认」。另一种「怎麽」表达否定语意,作为否定句子的命题。
本论文研究四种疑问词「怎麽」: (1)「起因」怎麽 (2) 「弱否认」怎麽 (3) 「强否认」怎麽 (4)「否定」怎麽。根据CP切割假说 (Split-CPhypothesis)(Rizzi 1997, 1999),本篇认为疑问词「怎麽」吻合 Tsai (1994, 1999, 2000, 2007, 2008)的 研究,可绘制出清晰的句法与语意位址定位图。


外文摘要:
This thesis aims to map out the syntactic distribution of the wh-phrase zenme ‘how-come’ in Chinese under the cartographic approach. In this thesis, I focus on zenme which occurs in the CP domain. It has been observed that zenme in the pre- modal position can either serve as a question to ask the cause of an event (i.e., the causal zenme), or serve as a reply to deny the occurrence of an event (i.e., the denial zenme) (Tsai 1999, 2000, 2007, 2008).
However, there are two more new usages of the wh-phrase zenme ‘how’ which both demonstrate even stronger illocutionary force than the denial zenme. One kind of zenme denotes a stronger degree of denial interpretation (hereafter the ‘strong denial or ‘s-denial’ for short) than that of denial zenme and thus the original denial zenme is henceforth viewed as the weak denial zenme (‘w-denial’ for short) in this thesis. Another usage of zenme denotes negative interpretation so as to negate the whole proposition that the sentence denotes.
In this thesis, I investigate the four wh-phrase zenme's ‘how-come’: (1) the causal zenme, (2) the w-denial zenme, (3) the s-denial zenme, and (4) the negative zenme. Following Rizzi’s (1997, 1999) Split-CP hypothesis, I propose that the wh-phrase zenme ‘how-come’ in Chinese demonstrates a transparent mapping of syntax and semantics in line with Tsai (1994, 1999, 2000, 2007, 2008).


目录:
TABLE OF CONTENTS


摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS III
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS VII
LIST OF TABLES VIII


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1
1.1. THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.1. THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS 3
1.1.1. The existence of weak denial zenme ‘how-come’ (w-denial zenme) 3
1.1.2. The existence of strong denial zenme ‘how-come’ (s-denial zenme) 7
1.1.3. The existence of negative zenme ‘how-come’ 8
1.2. THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 11


CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 12


2.1. THE SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE 12
2.1.1. Collins (1991) 12
2.1.2. Ochi (2004) 15
2.2. CARTOGRAPHIC APPROACH 18
2.2.1. Tsai (1994, 1999, 2000, 2007, 2008) 18
2.2.2. Tang (2015) 25
2.3. SUMMARY 33


CHAPTER 3 THE DISTINCTION OF THE FOUR WH-PHRASE ZENME’S 35


3.1. THE CONTEXT-BASED DISTINCTION 40
3.1.1. Causal zenme 40
3.1.2. Weak denial zenme (w-denial zenme) 41
3.1.3. Strong denial zenme (S-denial zenme) 43
3.1.4. Negative zenme 45
3.2. THE MODAL-BASED DISTINCTION 45
3.2.1. The Spectrum of Modality 45
3.2.2. Modal Distinction 50
3.3. THE FEATURE-BASED DISTINCTION 53
3.3.1. Disagreement 53
3.3.2. Cancellation 54
3.3.3. Actuality Entailment (AE) 56
3.3.4. Reality Status (RS) 61
3.3.5. Summary 63
3.4. THE DEFINITION OF WH-PHRASE ZENME 64
3.5. SUMMARY 65


CHAPTER 4 CARTOGRAPHY APPROACH 67


4.1. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK (THE SPLIT-CP HYPOTHESIS (RIZZI 1997, 1999)) 67
4.2. INTERROGATIVE ADVERB DAODI 70
4.3. THE EMBEDDED CONTEXT 76
4.3.1. The Verb Xiang-Zhidao ‘Want-Know’ 78
4.3.2. The Verb Renwei ‘Think’ 80
4.3.1. The Factive Verb Faxian ‘Find-Out’ 82
4.4. NPI LICENSING 87
4.5. TOPICALIZATION 91
4.6. PROJECTION OF THE FOUR ZENME 96
4.6.1. Subject In-Between Zenme and Modal 97
4.6.2. Pre-Subject Modal Test 100
4.7. INTERVENTION EFFECT 107
4.8. SUMMARY 116


CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND FURTHER REMARKS 119


5.1. CONCLUSION 119
5.2. FURTHER REMARKS 121
REFERENCES 128


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汉语疑问词「怎麽」之左缘结构分析
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非典疑问词 怎么 左缘结构 否定 否认 non-canonical wh-phrase zenme left periphery negative denial

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