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低特质考试焦虑者对于考试相关刺激的注意力偏误

阅读量:02021-12-03作者:龚韦勳来源:社会及行为科学学门
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研究生: 龚韦勳
研究生(外文): Wei-Hsun Kung
论文名称: 在不同考试威胁情境下高、低特质考试焦虑者对于考试相关刺激的注意力偏误
论文名称(外文): Attentional Bias of People with High or Low Test Anxiety to Test-Related Stimuli under High or Low Test Anxiety State Situation
指导教授: 赵轩甫赵轩甫引用关係
指导教授(外文): Hsuan-Fu Chao
学位类别: 硕士
校院名称: 中原大学
系所名称: 心理学研究所
学门: 社会及行为科学学门
学类: 心理学类
论文种类: 学术论文
论文出版年: 2018
毕业学年度: 106
语文别: 中文
论文页数: 150
中文关键词: 考试焦虑、点侦测、快速攫取、脱离困难、逃避现象、刺激呈现时距
外文关键词: attentional bias、dot probe task、capture、disengagement、avoidance、stimulus onset asynchrony


高特质焦虑者与焦虑相关障碍症的注意力偏误特性,仍是许多研究探究的焦点。然而,考试焦虑涉及注意力偏误特性的研究相对较少。本研究旨在了解考试焦虑对注意力的攫取与脱离,随著时间的变化有何不同。实验中邀请高、低特质考试焦虑的参与者,并将两组参与者随机分派至高或低考试威胁情境,使用点侦测派典(侦测作业)观察在100毫秒、500毫秒与1250毫秒刺激呈现时距,高特质考试焦虑者对考试威胁刺激是否有注意力偏误的现象,以及是何种特性的注意力偏误。
研究结果发现:(1)500毫秒刺激呈现时距中,观察到高特质考试焦虑个体在高考试威胁情境中,对考试威胁刺激产生脱离困难;(2)在1250毫秒刺激呈现时距,高特质考试焦虑者处在高考试威胁情境里头,对考试威胁刺激有逃避现象;最后,(3)在低考试威胁情境下,低特质考试焦虑者在100毫秒与1250毫秒刺激呈现时距,对考试无关刺激会有较快的反应时间。后续将探讨考试焦虑的注意力偏误特性对心理治疗的运用及未来研究可行的方向。


Studying on characterizing attention to threat effects of high trait anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, so far, there are many kinds of research focus on it. The studies of characterizing attention to threat of test anxiety are not enough to campare with others characterizing attention to threat of anxiety-related disorders. The present study investigates capture attention and disengagement attention to threat of test anxiety under different stimulus onset asynchrony. The experiment included high test anxiety trait individuals (HTA) and low test anxiety trait individuals (LTA) under high test anxiety state situation or low test anxiety state situation, the subjects completed dot probe task in which test threat-neutral (T-N)and neutral-neutral (N-N) word pairs with 100ms, 500ms, and 1250ms stimulus onset asynchrony(SOA).
The results demonstrated that: (1) HTA subjects showed maintenance of attention on test threat words under 500ms SOA; (2) HTA subjects showed avoidance oftest threat words under 1250ms SOA; (3) LTA subjects with low test anxiety state showed fast respond time to test-unrelated words under 100ms and 1250ms SOA relatively. These results suggest that, HTA subjects are also prone to maintenance and avoidance of attentional bias towards test-related threat stimuli. The study finds in relation to psychological intervention and implications for future research are discussed.


摘要…………………I
Abstract…………………II
目次…………………III
附图目录…………………VI
附表目录…………………VII
壹、绪论…………………1
一、考试焦虑之介绍…………………1
(一)何谓考试焦虑?…………………1
(二)考试焦虑之人口学特质与盛行率。…………………5
(三)考试焦虑之理论构念。…………………7
(四)如何测量考试焦虑…………………9
(五)考试焦虑的成因。…………………11
(六)考试焦虑对学业表现与认知能力的影响。…………………13
二、注意力偏误…………………15
(一)注意力偏误的运作机制。…………………15
(二)注意力偏误特性。…………………19
(三)注意力偏误特性与不同的刺激呈现时距。…………………23
(四)注意力偏误与迴向抑制。…………………26
(五)研究注意力偏误所面临的挑战。…………………28
三、观察注意力偏误特性的实验派典…………………30
(一)情绪Stroop派典。…………………31
(二)点侦测派典。…………………33
(三)情绪空间线索派典。…………………37
(四)视觉搜索派典。…………………39
四、考试焦虑涉及注意力偏误的相关研究…………………42
(一)目前的研究发现。…………………42
(二)考试焦虑涉及注意力偏误的研究问题与推论限制。…………………45
五、研究目的与假设…………………47
贰、研究方法…………………49
一、参与者…………………49
二、研究工具…………………51
(一)中文版考试焦虑量表。…………………51
(二)贝克忧鬱量表及焦虑量表。…………………58
(三)情绪操弄检核表。…………………59
三、实验刺激材料…………………60
四、研究设备…………………62
五、正式实验…………………63
(一)考试威胁情境之操弄(状态考试焦虑)。…………………63
(二)测量注意力偏误的方法:点侦测派典(侦测作业)。…………………65
(三)练习阶段的尝试数与安排。…………………68
(四)正式实验的因子与尝试数。…………………69
六、研究程序…………………72
参、研究结果…………………73
一、量表分数…………………73
二、操弄检核分析…………………76
三、分析前资料处理…………………78
四、点侦测派典(侦测作业)反应时间之分析…………………79
(一)上、下位置差异比较分析。…………………79
(二)100毫秒刺激呈现时距。…………………81
(三)500毫秒刺激呈现时距。…………………83
(四)1250毫秒刺激呈现时距。…………………84
五、小结…………………85
肆、研究讨论…………………86
一、讨论…………………87
(一)考试焦虑注意力偏误会随著时间有所改变。…………………87
(二)有别过去注意力偏误研究发现的不同。…………………89
二、研究贡献…………………91
(一)考试焦虑的注意力偏误特性初探。…………………91
(二)考试焦虑的注意力偏误修正训练。…………………91
三、研究限制…………………92
(一)男性参与者样本数过少。…………………92
(二)缺乏实验的重複验证。…………………92
参考文献…………………93
附录一授权使用考试焦虑问卷的证明…………………101
附录二特质考试焦虑问卷…………………102
附录三状态考试焦虑问卷…………………103
附录四特质考试焦虑量表简单相关矩阵…………………104
附录五状态考试焦虑量表简单相关矩阵…………………105
附录六第一阶段实验特质考试焦虑量表简单相关矩阵…………………106
附录七-1情绪操弄检核表(高考试威胁情境…………………107
附录七-2情绪操弄检核表(低态考试威胁情境)…………………108
附录八实验刺激材料词库…………………109
附录九‘双字词判断与分类作业’…………………118
附录十参与研究同意书…………………143
附录十一释疑与回馈…………………144


附图目录
图1:考试焦虑的整合性处理模型。…………………11
图2:注意力偏误之整合式模型。…………………16
图3:考试焦虑与注意力偏误之模型对应图。…………………18
图4:点侦测作业(1)侦测作业:威胁刺激被目标刺激取代;(2)区辨作业:中性刺激被目标刺激取代。…………………34
图5:刺激呈现时距示意图。…………………35
图6:情绪空间线索(1)侦测:一致;(2)区辨:不一致。…………………37
图7:视觉搜索:在正向情绪线索中找出负向情绪线索。…………………39
图8:刺激呈现示意图。…………………66
图9:实验程序图。…………………67


附表目录
表1:参与者之组别安排。…………………49
表2:人口学资料。…………………50
表3:预试版本特质考试焦虑量表各题与总分的描述性统计。…………………52
表4:预试版本特质考试焦虑量表之因素分析(N = 43)。…………………53
表5:预试版本特质考试焦虑量表描述性统计与信度分析(N = 43)。………………… 53
表6:预试版本状态考试焦虑量表各题与总分的描述性统计。…………………54
表7:预试版本状态考试焦虑量表之因素分析(N = 43)。…………………55
表8:预试版本状态考试焦虑量表描述性统计与信度分析(N = 43)。………………… 55
表9:特质考试焦虑量表各题与总分的描述性统计。…………………56
表10:特质考试焦虑量表之因素分析(N = 207)。…………………56
表11:特质考试焦虑量表描述性统计与信度分析(N = 207)。…………………57
表12:双字词判断与分类作业之参与者人口学资料(N = 44)。…………………60
表13:各组之词频、笔画数、考试相关性、生理威胁性与正负向性的描述统计。…………………61
表14:各组在词性分配之交叉表。…………………61
表15:英文作文与统计考试之评估描述性统计。…………………63
表16:练习尝试考试威胁词与三组中性词之配对内容。…………………68
表17:练习尝试之对抗平衡。…………………68
表18:正式实验考试词与三组中性词之配对内容。…………………69
表19:正式实验参与者内对抗平衡。…………………70
表20:参与者在各量表之描述性统计。…………………74
表21:特质考试焦虑量表与状态考试焦虑量表再测信度相关数值(N = 58)。…………………75
表22:操弄检核表之描述性统计。…………………77
表23:各组错误反应百分比。…………………78
表24:不同情况下之反应时间描述性统计1。…………………79
表25:不同情况下之反应时间描述性统计2。…………………80
表26:100毫秒注意力偏误指标之描述性统计。…………………82
表27:500毫秒注意力偏误指标之描述性统计。…………………83
表28:1250毫秒注意力偏误指标之描述性统计。…………………84
表29:两种注意力指标结果摘要表。…………………85
表30:状态考试焦虑量表(前测)与各组平均反应时间相关。…………………89


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