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多元社会的稳定:论公共理性、审议民主与公民德行

阅读量:02021-08-31作者:吴泽玫来源:人文学门
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研究生: 吴泽玫
研究生(外文): Tse-Mei Wu
论文名称: 多元社会的稳定:论公共理性、审议民主与公民德行
论文名称(外文): The Stability of a Pluralist Society: On Public Reason, Deliberative Democracy, and Civic Virtues
指导教授: 林火旺林火旺引用关係
口试委员: 陈宜中、陈张培伦、许汉、萧高彦
口试日期: 2012-07-25
学位类别: 博士
校院名称: 国立台湾大学
系所名称: 哲学研究所
学门: 文学
学类: 哲学学类
论文种类: 学术论文
论文出版年: 2012
毕业学年度: 100
语文别: 中文
论文页数: 233
中文关键词: 稳定性问题、公共理性、审议民主、公民德行、罗尔斯、古德曼、汤普森
外文关键词: The Problem of Stability、Public Reason、Deliberative Democracy、Civic Virtues、John Rawls、Amy Gutmann、Dennis Thompson


本文的目的在于阐明多元社会的稳定性问题,并为之提供适当的解答。在当代自由民主社会存在多元的全面性学说之事实下,公民经常对各种社会制度和公共政策有著分歧的意见。于是,我们所面临的稳定性问题是:如何促使抱持不同道德观、价值观和正义观的公民,自愿接受并遵守各种制度和政策的规范?本文欲探讨的稳定性并非奠基在「暂订协议」之上,而是一种「出于正当理由的稳定」。要确保这样的稳定性,则适当的解答必须正视引发政治歧见的相关原因,并提供用以解决争议或做决策的机制。
本文首先探讨罗尔斯在《正义论》和《政治自由主义》中的三个稳定性论证,笔者将指出,这类从社会正义原则层次所提供的解答,无法成功地回答稳定性问题。而后,笔者将提出一个稳定性架构,其包含三个基本要素。第一个要素是罗尔斯的公共理性宽广观点,其可用以指导公民对各种基本政治问题的思考与推理。其次是古德曼和汤普森的审议民主观。公共审议所发挥的功能可以扩展公民对相关资讯和观点的瞭解、将个人的偏好从自利转向公共利益的考量,并可促进良好的集体决策。经审议过后所进行的投票则可赋予最终的结果合法性,其使得人们更愿意支持并遵守政策决议的结果。最后一个要素是审议公民的教育。唯有培养出具备审议相关能力和德行的公民,我们才可能真正实现公共理性和审议民主的理想。笔者将指出,这个稳定性架构是理论上可欲且实作上可行的,因此,它能够作为多元社会稳定性问题的适当解答。


The purpose of this dissertation is to formulate and present a proper solution to the problem of the stability of a pluralist society. Given the fact of the plurality of reasonable comprehensive doctrines in a liberal democratic society, citizens frequently disagree about various social institutions and public policies. The problem of stability we are faced with, then, is how citizens can be motivated so that they will accept and comply with these institutions and policies voluntarily, even if they affirm different conceptions of morality, good, and justice. The stability with which this dissertation is concerned is not based on a modus vivendi, but “stability for the right reasons”. In order to secure this kind of stability, the proper solution must respond appropriately to various sources of political disagreement and provide mechanisms for settling disputes or making policy decisions.
In this dissertation, I will begin by examining three arguments of stability proposed by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice and Political Liberalism. Then I will explain why Rawls’s solutions, which are located at the level of principles of social justice, cannot resolve the problem of stability successfully. Next, I will propose a framework of stability that includes three essential elements. The first element is Rawls’s wide view of public reason. His view can be used to guide citizens’ thinking and reasoning about fundamental political questions. The second element is the conception of deliberative democracy from Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson. Various effects of public deliberation can broaden the information and perspectives of citizens, transform individuals’ preferences from private interests to public interests, and promote good collective decisions. Voting that follows deliberation can confer legitimacy on the ultimate results such that people will be more willing to support or comply with the results of policy-making. The third element is the education of deliberative citizens. Only if we can cultivate citizens with certain capabilities and virtues relevant to deliberation can we realize the ideals of public reason and deliberative democracy. I will argue that this framework is both defensible in theory and feasible in practice; hence, it can provide a proper solution to the problem of the stability of a pluralist society.


导论 …………………………………………………………… 1
第一章 《正义论》中的稳定性论证 ……………………… 13
第一节 正义原则的推导 ……………………………… 14
第二节 正义感的论证 ………………………………… 19
第三节 契合性论证 …………………………………… 26
第四节 罗尔斯的稳定性论证出了什麽错? ………… 31
第二章 政治自由主义与重叠共识 ………………………… 39
第一节 作为政治正义观的「正义即公平」………… 40
第二节 重叠共识与政治稳定 ………………………… 45
第三节 多元社会有「重叠共识」? ………………… 53
第三章 罗尔斯的公共理性观 ……………………………… 67
第一节 公共理性的意涵 ……………………………… 67
第二节 公共理性与民主公民 ………………………… 73
第三节 从单一到宽广的公共理性 …………………… 79
第四章 公共理性与多元社会的稳定 ……………………… 93
第一节 公共理性如何促成政治稳定 ………………… 94
第二节 民主多数决与政治稳定 ……………………… 104
第三节 公共理性的侷限 ……………………………… 113
第五章 古德曼和汤普森的审议民主观 …………………… 121
第一节 民主的加总观与审议观之对比 ……………… 122
第二节 动态且宽广的审议观 ………………………… 130
第三节 审议的规范原则 ……………………………… 136
第六章 审议民主与多元社会的稳定 ……………………… 147
第一节 审议民主如何促成政治稳定 ………………… 148
第二节 对审议民主理论的挑战 ……………………… 157
第三节 从理论到实践:审议式民调 ………………… 163
第四节 提供少数族群平等的发声机会 ……………… 170
第七章 审议公民的教育 …………………………………… 179
第一节 审议的相关能力与德行 ……………………… 180
第二节 自主性作为审议能力的争论 ………………… 194
第三节 教育审议公民的最适当场所 ………………… 201
结论 …………………………………………………………… 207
参考书目 ……………………………………………………… 219


Ⅰ、中文部分
一、期刊论文
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李有蓉〈台湾经济与人权发展之辩证关係:以汉生病病患为例〉,《台湾民主季刊》第六卷第二期(2009):169-209。
林火旺〈公共理性的功能及其限制〉,《政治与社会哲学评论》第八期(2004):47-77。
---〈审议民主与公民养成〉,《国立台湾大学哲学论评》第二十九期(2005):99-143。
周保松〈正义感的优先性与契合论〉,《政治与社会哲学评论》第三十期(2009):165-202。
张福建〈多元主义与合理的政治秩序:罗尔斯《政治自由主义》评释〉,《政治科学论丛》第八期(1997):111-132。
许汉〈容忍之困难与可能的解决之道〉,《政治与社会哲学评论》第二十八期(2009):1-48。
陈宜中〈罗尔斯与政治哲学的实际任务〉,《政治科学论丛》第十四期(2001):47-74。
蔡英文〈多元与统一:多元主义与自由主义的一项政治议题〉,《人文及社会科学集刊》第九卷第三期(1997):45-84。
钱永祥〈罗尔斯论公共性:公共理性或公共论述〉,收入林从一主编,《哲学分析与视域交融》,台北市:台湾大学出版中心(2010):255-271。


二、网站资料库
「自由时报电子报」:http://iservice.libertytimes.com.tw/IService2/search.php
「联合知识库」:http://udndata.com/library/


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