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从全球治理探究新冠疫苗研发生产与分配之机制

阅读量:02021-12-29作者:柯智闵来源:公共行政学类
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研究生: 柯智闵
研究生(外文): Jhih-Min Ko
论文名称: 从全球治理探究新冠疫苗研发生产与分配之机制
论文名称(外文): The Study of Covid-19 Vaccine Research and Development Production and Distribution Mechanisms:From Global Governance Perspective
指导教授: 袁鹤龄袁鹤龄引用关係
口试委员: 黄信达、林伟修
口试日期: 2021-09-24
学位类别: 硕士
校院名称: 国立中兴大学
系所名称: 国家政策与公共事务研究所
学门: 社会及行为科学学门
学类: 公共行政学类
论文种类: 学术论文
论文出版年: 2021
毕业学年度: 109
语文别: 中文
论文页数: 116
中文关键词: 新冠疫苗(COVID-19)、全球治理、COVAX
外文关键词: COVID-19 Vaccine、Global Governance、COVAX


自2019年底爆发严重特殊传染性肺炎(COVID-19,新冠肺炎),已迅速传播引起全球大流行,造成人类健康生命、国际互动与经济体系的多重危机,疫苗已成为全球2021年底前结束大流行的最快解决方案。各国在面对COVID-19疫苗研发生产与分配时,必定会衡量其本国的利弊得失以做出相应之决策,此外,除了国家之外,越來越多的非国家行为体參与这些活动。
本文研究目的是想了解“COVID-19疫苗全球取得机制”(COVAX)的伙伴关係,其组成与行为主体参与者有谁?如何进行参与与合作?以及在全球疫苗研发过程中,已核准上市的COVID-19疫苗有那些?各国政府于COVID-19疫苗购买及疫苗施打情况如何?当前全球疫苗分配治理所面臨的困境与挑战为何?
本研究发现,至2021年8月25日止,COVID-19疫苗已有20种疫苗在各国核准紧急使用,WHO核准紧急使用的疫苗有7种,另有112种处于临床试验阶段,还有184种候选疫苗处于临床前开发阶段。通常,新开发的疫苗可能需要十多年才能到达低收入国家,此次借助 COVAX 和 COVID-19 工具加速器 (ACT-A),COVID-19疫苗在高收入国家的人们接受第一次注射后,仅 39 天就向低收入国家推出COVID-19疫苗并且注射,此为全球治理一大进展。
COVAX是超越贫富国家,致力全球COVID-19疫苗分配正义,是唯一一个与政府和制造商合作以确保COVID-19疫苗在全球范围内提供给高收入和低收入国家的全球倡议。COVAX已经证明,因为全球治理的关係带动全球响应,在后COVID-19疫情世界中,我们如何确保使这一切成为可能的宝贵经验和知识都不会丢失,并且可以在下一次大流行来袭时立即投入使用。我们现在是否需要创建一个包含所有这些要素的明确授权的全球流行病防范机构,或者是否有另一种更具成本效益和效率的方法来捕获这种网络方法,而不会在全球卫生架构中造成重複,并且不会在危机期间没有被閒著?
COVAX目前面临的困境与挑战有三,其一、缺乏预算援助,以及有赖跨区域生产和关键材料的掌握,其二、疫苗运送及保存管理等技术问题尚待克服;其三、富国以高价圈购疫苗,致使亚洲等其他国家疫苗输送时程延迟等。


Since the outbreak of severe special infectious pneumonia ( COVID-19, novel coronavirus pneumonia ) at the end of 2019, it has rapidly spread and caused a global pandemic, causing multiple crises in human health, life, international interaction, and economic system. Vaccines have become the best solution to stop the pandemic before the end of 2021. When facing the development, production and distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine, the States will definitely weigh their own pros and cons to make corresponding decisions. Moreover, in addition to the state, more and more non-state actors are participating in these activities.
The purpose of this study is to understand the partnership of the "COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access Facility" (COVAX), its composition and the action participants? How to participate and cooperate? And in the global vaccine development process, which COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for marketing? How about the purchase and delivery of COVID-19 vaccine by governments of various countries? What are the current dilemmas and challenges in facing global vaccine distribution governance?
This study found that as of August 25, 2021, 20 COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for emergency use in various countries, and WHO has approved 7 vaccines for emergency use. Another 112 are in clinical trials, and 184 candidate vaccines are in the pre-clinical development stage. Generally, it may take more than ten years for newly developed vaccines to reach low-income countries. With the help of COVAX and the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT-A), after people in high-income countries receive the first injection of COVID-19 vaccine, the introduction and injection of COVID-19 vaccines to low-income countries in just 39 days, which is a great progress in global governance.
COVAX is beyond rich and poor countries and is committed to the global COVID-19 vaccines distribution. It is the only global initiative that cooperates with governments and manufacturers to ensure that COVID-19 vaccines are provided to high-income and low-income countries on a global scale. COVAX has proven that because the relationship of global governance drives a global response, in the post-COVID-19 world, how can we ensure that the valuable experience and knowledge that made this possible will not be lost, and that it can be put into use immediately available when the next pandemic strikes. Do we now need to create a clearly authorized global pandemic preparedness agency that includes all these elements, or is there another more cost-effective and efficient way to capture this network approach without causing duplication in the global health architecture? And will not remain idle during the crisis.
COVAX currently faces three dilemmas and challenges. One is the lack of budget, and it relies on cross-regional production and the mastery of key materials. Second, technical problems such as vaccine delivery and preservation management have yet to be overcome. Third, rich countries are buying at high prices, which have delayed the delivery of vaccines in other countries such as Asia.


摘 要 i
Abstract ii
目 次 iv
表 目 次 v
图 目 次 vi
第一章 绪论 1
第一节 研究动机与目的 1
第二节 研究问题 7
第三节 研究方法与架构 9
第四节 章节安排 11
第二章 文献探讨 13
第一节 全球化与全球治理 13
第二节 全球治理的运用与困境 23
第三节 COVID-19疫苗研发的科学认知 30
第四节 国内疫苗进展 38
第五节 全球COVID-19疫苗的取得及分配机制 40
第三章 全球公平获取疫苗倡议 43
第一节 获取COVID‑19工具加速计划的伙伴关係 43
第二节 每个共同召集和领导组织的执行委员会 46
第三节 机构间协调和工作 47
第四节 COVAX参与者与治理模式 50
第五节 COVAX未来挑战 61
第四章 全球COVID-19疫苗研发现况 63
第一节 全球各国已核准之COVID-19疫苗 64
第二节 WHO紧急使用清单(EUL) 93
第三节 全球COVID-19疫苗购买情况 95
第四节 全球疫苗部署 103
第五章 结论与建议 107
第一节 研究发现 107
第二节 未来研究方向建议 109
参 考 书 目 111


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